Paper Based Test

Free GMAT Full Length  Verbal Test

DIRECTIONS for Sentence Correction questions: This question presents a sentence, part of which or all of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeat the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose the first answer;otherwise choose one of the others.

These questions test correctness and effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be clear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy or grammatical error.

DIRECTIONS for Critical Reasoning questions: For these questions, choose the best of the answer choices given.

DIRECTIONS for Reading Comprehension questions: The questions in this group are based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question.  Answer all questions following the passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Note: Answer Keys and Explanations are provided at the end of this page.


1. Like that of Haydn Schubert also wrote a great deal for the stage, but he is remembered principally for his concert-hall and chamber music.

(A) Like that of Haydn     

(B) Like Haydn’s music                     

(C) Similar to Haydn’s music 

(D) Similar to Haydn                

(E) Like Haydn

2. An agrarian society such as the United States at the close of the eighteenth century could produce the food needed so they could themselves not the tools for advancement and compete with other nations.

(A) Needed so that they could sustain themselves, but not the tools for advancement and competition

(B) Needed for sustaining themselves, but not produce the tools for advancement and competition

(C) Necessary to sustain themselves, but not the tools to advance and compete

(D) Necessary to sustain itself, but not the tools to advance and compete

(E) Necessary for it to sustain itself, but not produce the tools to advance and compete


If love is a product of shared growth, however, and we are to measure success in marriage by the degree to which matched development occurs, it becomes possible to make a strong and ominous prediction about the future.

3. If the prediction is one of progressively shorter time spans for marriages, which of the following factors may actually weaken the basis on which the prediction is based?

 a)        An extremely fast moving society.

b)        Life expectancy has gone up.

c)        People are being less and less career minded.

d)        Men and women are becoming more and more competitive.

e)        (b) and (c).

Questions 4-10

 For years now, critics of United States cities have pictured city centers as empty places, devoid of life. Fortunately, a recent trend in urban development is making some cities lively. One example of this trend is Baltimore’s Harbor place, a stunning waterfront complex of one hundred shops set in glass pavilions. Not long ago, Baltimore’s dockland

5 area, like clock areas in other older cities, was a collection of abandoned warehouses. Now the area is expected to add thirty million dollars to Baltimore’s annual tax base and to draw home buyers back to the city and away from the nearby Washington, DC area.

Baltimore has long been a pioneer in urban renewal, not only building from scratch, as at Harbor place, but preserving and restoring buildings throughout the town center. Although

10 few cities show this much care for their old residential areas, the officials of many cities are starting to believe that central districts ought to be sufficiently attractive to draw permanent residents to them. Several other cities built around water are also exploiting their easily accessible waterfront areas. San Francisco, in its Ghirardelli Square project, converted an old factory at the edge of the bay into a labyrinth of boutiques. St. Louis

15 Savannah, Louisville, and Portland all have “riverside malls” in progress, while Boston’s Quincy Market also on the waterfront , is expected to bring in 1.5 million dollars in city taxes annually.

This trend reflects an important change in social attitudes in the United States, brought on by new economic factors. In the 1960’s, the availability of low-cost housing beyond

20 city limits caused many cities in the east and Midwest to lose residents, thus leaving city centers relatively empty of life. In the southwest a different phenomenon ,the relentless impetus of cities like TU Houston, and Phoenix to extend their orders across the desert, has had much the same effect: centers full of skyscrapers and streets that are empty after five o’clock ,for years it seemed that the “ideal” home was tranquil suburban

25 residence.

But recently, the rise in gas prices has made long automobile journeys to work less tolerable. Trips of fifty miles are not uncommon for the suburban commuter. In addition, suburban property taxes have risen sharply as utility lines are stretched ever farther from central sources.

30 The rise in house prices has increased the differential between city and suburban property; now it is generally cheaper to buy an old urban house than a newer suburban one. Young working people, usually without children, are the most likely purchasers of urban homes. Following these people are huge projects including apartments, offices, and shops, all embracing the increasingly attractive belief that people should live, work, and shop within

35 as little traveling distance as possible.

4.  According to the passage, the officials of Baltimore expect the Harbor place complex to help solve which of the following problems?

I.   The lack of creation facilities in Baltimore.

II.   Draw homebuyers back to the city.

III.   The high rate of unemployment among employees of Baltimore’s shipping industries.

(A) I only

(B) II only                             

(C) I and II only

(D) I and III only                              

(E) I, II and III

5.  According to the passage, Baltimore differs from most other cities in the United States because it

A)  Shows particular care for its old residential sections.

B)  Competes with another major city for the home-buying market.

C)  Concentrates most of its development projects in areas that are located away from its waterfront area.

D)  Has failed in its efforts to strengthen its tax base through major urban renewal projects.

E)  Has developed urban renewal plans that emphasize the needs of suburbanites shopping in the city rather than those of city residents.

6.  According to the author, Ghirardelli Square differs from Harbor place in that the Ghirardelli Square project

A)        Lacks the accessibility of Harbor place.

B)       Was developed cooperatively with a nearby city.

C)       Has not significantly affected the shopping habits of city residents.

D)       Includes a building that was already standing when the project began.

E)       Is more successful at attracting homebuyers to its vicinity.

7.  The author suggests that, in the United States, southwestern cities can be distinguished from eastern cities by the fact that

A)  Cities in the southwest have declined at a different rate than have cities in the east.

B)  Officials in southwestern cities have shown less interest in revitalizing their city centers than have officials in eastern cities.

C)  Southwestern cities have had more success than have eastern cities in attracting new home buyers.

D)  Southwestern cities tend to be smaller than eastern cities and thus have fewer buildings that need to be maintained.

E)  The centers of southwestern cities have lost residents for different reasons than have the centers of eastern cities.

8. The author most likely puts the word “ideal” in quotation marks because he

A)        Is quoting directly from another published source on a similar subject.

B)       Is quoting directly from a homeowner he interviewed.

C)       Believes that the ideal has changed in response to social aid economic factors.

D)       Believes that the ideal is only attainable in the United States.

E)       Believes that most people who held this ideal never attained it.

9.  The author suggests that critics of United States cities have done which of the following?

A)        Misunderstood the causes of the decline of the cities after the 1960’s.

B)       Created much needless public resistance to urban development projects.

C)       Made irresponsible predictions about the cost of revitalizing major cities.

D)       Held views that no longer reflect actual conditions in many major cities.

E)       Overemphasized the problems of northern cities and under emphasized the problems of southern cities.

10.  This passage is most likely an excerpt from

A)        a study of population shifts between cities and suburbs before 1960.

B)       a study of housing prices in the northeastern United States.

C)       an article promoting tourism in the northeastern United States.

D)       an article describing new places to shop in the centers of cities.

E)       an article on recent innovations in cities in the United States.

11.   President Carter urged that women as well  as men be required to register for the draft.

A)   As well as men be 

B) As well as men are to be

C)  Just as men ought to be                                

D) Like men should be

E)  Like men are to be

12.   World oil prices would have to rise before companies could recover the costs of extracting Alaskan natural gas, transportation to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there, and shipping it to markets in the lower United States.

A)        Transportation to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there.

B)       Transportation to Alaska coast processing plants

C)       of transportation to processing plants on the Alaska coast

D)       Transporting it to the Alaska coast, where it will go to processing plants there

E)       Transporting it to processing plants on the Alaska coast

13.   Baseball is unique for the major sports because it is the only ball game in which no team does not have possession of the ball on offense.

A)        For the major sports because it is the only ball game in which team does not have possession of the ball on offense.

B)       For the major sports in that it is the only ball game that the team on offense does not have possession of the ball.

C)       Among major sports as the only ball game that the team on offense does not have possession of the ball.

D)       Among major sports in that it is the only ball game in which the team on offense does not have possession of the ball.

E)       Among the major sports by belongs the only ball game in which the team does not have possession of the ball on offense.

Despite its extraordinary success and achievement in art, science, intellectual, moral and political life, the United States is a nation in which tens of thousands of young people flee reality by opting for drug-induced lassitude; a nation in which millions of their parents retreat into video-induced stupor or alcoholic haze; a nation in which legions of elderly folk vegetate and die in loneliness; in which the flight from family and occupational responsibility has become an exodus. Such a nation, whether it knows it or not, is suffering from future shock.

14.  The sharp contrast drawn in the paragraph can be viewed as a comparison between

A)        The young and the old.

B)       The achievements of a few vis-à-vis the failures of a generation.

C)       The present versus the future.

D)       The energetic versus the dull.

E)       The individual in comparison to the family.

Crossword Puzzles seem to be one of the most popular pastimes these days. The popularity seems even more pronounced when you compare the increase in the number of cruciverbalists (ardent crossword puzzle enthusiasts) taking part in prize money competition is these days as opposed to, say, the number a few years ago.

15.   Which of the statements is likely to weaken the above argument?

A)     Studies have shown that lateral thinking, a vital ingredient for effective crossword puzzle solving, actually improves analytical process and logical thinking.

B)      Most crossword puzzle enthusiasts see competitions as natural outlets for emphasizing competitive edge, a vital feature of today’s life.

C)      Crossword Puzzles take up just the kind of time that most office goers have due to increase in luncheon hours.

D)      Analyses have shown that material well-being is rated very high and priorities of most individuals these days, a tact reflected in the gradual rise in prize money of crossword puzzle contests.

E)      Crossword puzzles has been introduced as optional “subjects” in secondary schools.

16.  To Adam Smith economics has much to teach about the creation of wealth but relatively little about its distribution.

A)        To Adam Smith, economics was thought to have

B)       To Adam Smith’s belief, economics has

C)       Adam Smith believed that economics had

D)       To Adam Smith’s belief, economics had

E)       Economics, to Adam Smith’s belief, has

17.  The versions of Spanish spoken in Madrid and in Buenos Aires are as distinct one from the other as the kinds of English spoken in Edinburgh and in Atlanta.

A)    As distinct one from the other as          

B)   As distinct from each other as

C)    Distinctive from one another as are      

D)   Distinctive from each other as are

E)    As distinctive one from the other as

Questions 18 – 24

With the development of modern theoretical astrophysics, astronomers are able to explain data collected by early observers and to amass data about previously unknown phenomena in extragalactic optical astronomy. Despite our lack of understanding of these new phenomena, the data is being used for a variety of purposes. In certain cases it is possible, by

5 application of known physical laws, to make theoretical predictions that are subject to observational tests. The prediction of neutron stars is a classic example of the use of this type of theory for purposes of prediction. Another is to be found in the field of cosmology.

Much of the current activity in extragalactic astronomy is directed towards deciding which if any, of the theoretical models of the universe is the most accurate .Starting from Einstein’s

10 Theory,that

15 proposed a radically different approach – the steady-state theory of the universe. This cosmology dispensed with the idea of a primordial singularity demanded by Hubble’s theory and substituted the concept of continuous creation of matter, which would maintain approximately constant mean density. It is largely within the context of these two theory models that observational work has found both its inspiration and its justification.
20 predictions of the type outlined above are of particular importance to astronomy, which is an observational rather than an experimental science. Predictive theory that is concerned with the consequences of physical laws is thus immensely productive in an astronomical context and can lead to lively interaction with the observational aspects of the subject.

It would, however, be unfair to suggest that theory usually plays such a guiding role

25 in astronomical endeavor. Indeed, more often, theories are motivated by discoveries. As a result the second major role of theory in astronomy is that of interpretation. In the field of stellar evolution, for example, the general features of the Hertzprung-Russell diagram (essentially a plot of luminosity versus temperature) had been known for many years before a theoretical interpretation in terms of nuclear processing in unmixed stars could be given.

30 This quantitative explanation opened the way to the development of a method for using the results iof stellar-evolution calculations to provide us with quantitative information about stars. In principle, this method can be used to determine the approximate stellar abundances of the chemical elements, stellar masses, and hence stellar ages. Indeed, stellar-evolution theory provides us with the only widely applicable method of dating stellar systems

18.  The primary purpose of the passage is to

A)        Elucidate ways in which astronomy differs from other sciences.

B)       Discuss the roles of observation and theory in astronomy.

C)       Present two conflicting views of the origin of the universe.

D)       Demonstrate how the laws of physics apply to astronomy.

E)       Explain the importance of stellar-evolution theory.

19.  Which of the following represents a methodological handicap in the field of astronomy?

A)        The difficulty of formulating predictive theories.

B)       The impossibility of evaluating data collected by early observers.

C)       The difficulty of correlating observed data with theoretical predictions.

D)       The theoretical problem of reconciling the laws of astronomy with known laws of physics.

E)       The difficulty of testing hypotheses through experimentation.

20.  It can be inferred that the author considers predictive theory to be important in astronomy because it

A)        Can be easily verified on the basis of objective data.

B)       May provide a framework for further astronomical observation.

C)       May result in confirmation of known physical laws.

D)       Confirms the validity of data on the origins of the universe.

E)       Often contributes to the advancement of other sciences.

21.  The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following.

A)        A specialized monograph on astrophysics and its methods.

B)       A newspaper article discussing cosmology.

C)       A popular discussion of basic physical laws.

D)       A theoretical essay on chemical elements in the universe.

E)       A popular article on techniques of optical observation.

22.  With which of the following statements concerning both the predictive and the interpretive roles of astronomical theory would the author be most likely to agree?

A)        Both stimulate new research and provide a background against which astrophysical phenomena can be understood.

B)       Both focus on discovering which model of the universe is correct.

C)       Both are useful for validating information collected by observation as well as for testing the application of known physical laws.

D)       Both have contributed about equally to every advance in astronomy and physics.

E)       Both have as their primary objectives the formulation of new hypotheses.

23.  The author uses the example of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in order to illustrate which of the following assertions?

A)        Theory plays an important role in providing explanations for existing data.

B)       Qualitative theory sometimes leads to the collection of quantitative information.

C)       Quantitative data can provide an explanation for nuclear processing in unmixed stars.

D)       There is a mathematical relationship between luminosity and temperature in stars.

E)       Quantitative methods can be used to determine the mass and age of any star.

24.  The author regards theoretical speculation on the origins of the universe with

A)   Mild skepticism.            

B)  Restrained enthusiasm                 

C)  Anxious concern.

D)  Cool indifference.            

E)  Objective detachment.

Cologne has witnessed a large exodus to its suburbs. Social scientists have attributed this to increasing noise and environment pollution. Statistics reveal, while a number of cars and other four wheelers went up by a staggering 256,000 in the period between 1983 and 1986 ,the corresponding period increase ten years ago was only 44,000.

25.  Which of the following factors, as a complement to the above, may go against the conclusion drawn in the second line of the paragraph above?

A)   Several job opportunities have sprung up for people in the heart of Cologne.

B)   As real estate prices have soared in Cologne, going way above real incomes, housing has become a major problem for the middle and lower income groups.

C)   Several cases of lung cancer have been reported in the heart of the city.

D)   Anti-pollution measures are being affected over the city.

E)   Several countries have expressed their desire to set up joint sector collaborations in Cologne

Certified Public Accountants are not as fancied as their MBA counterparts (CPA + MBA) when it comes to recruitment in their first year after the degree.

26.  All of the following statements substantiate the above EXCEPT

A)   This year most multinationals preferred post-graduates with two degrees, Certified Public and Business Administration, compared to only Certified Public Accountants.

B)   Two thirds of all CPA’s were placed with companies within three months of their graduation compared to their counter parts from Management Colleges, who on an average, had jobs per person within three months of their graduation.

C)   CPA’s are viewed as specialists, while MBA’s, being Jack-of-all-trades, have far less chances of sticking to their first job.

D)   CPA’s  are viewed as biased, bookish individuals whose inflexibility compared to the average MBA makes them less capable of handling managerial slots.

E)    MBA’s tend to be quick on the uptake while CPA’s tend to derive solace from books rather than their innate intuitive abilities.

27.  In the Ann Arbor court case, the parents of fifteen Black children successfully brought slogans against the school system for, first of all, failing to take the children’s vernacular into account in teaching them, and secondary their failure that the children did not learn to speak Standard English.

A)     Secondary, for their failure that the children did no learn

B)     Secondly, that their failure to teach the children

C)    Secondly, that they failed and the children did not learn

D)    Second, that they failed to teach the children

E)    Second, failing to teach the children

28.  The rate of metabolism reactions of an organism of a complex nature is limited by the rate at which waste products are removed through the animal’s specialized circulatory and excretory system.

A)   The rate of metabolism reactions of an organism of a complex nature is limited by rate at which

B)   The rate of metabolic reactions in a complex organism is limited by the rate at which

C)   The rate of metabolism reactions in a complex organism are limited by the rate which

D)   A complex organism’s rate of metabolic reactions are limited by the rate at which

E)    A complex organism’s rate of metabolism reactions is limited by the rate at which

29.  Millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the offices, instead of consuming the gasoline used to get to work.

A)   Millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the office, instead of consuming the gasoline used to get to work.

B)   Millions of workers have jobs that can be done as well at home as the office, rather than consume the gasoline they must use to get to work.

C)   Instead of consuming the gasoline used to get to work, millions of workers have jobs that are able to be done as well at home as at the office.

D)   Rather than consume the gasoline used to get to work, millions of workers can do their jobs as well at home as the office.

E)    Instead of using gasoline to get to work, millions of workers could do their jobs as well at home as at the office.

Questions 30 – 32

The issue of women, art, and feminism has been most urgently raised by a number of women artists. Several approaches to the problem of defining feminist art have evolved and are being discussed and developed within the feminist art movement. One particular approach has suggested that some sort of female aesthetic or sensibility exists, involving an imagery and formal style specific to women. Proponents insist that an authentic artistic language is being created, corresponding to the distinct social experience of women, independent of “male-defined” art, and essentially liberating. Others argue that the theory of a female aesthetic really restricts women in that it limits them to certain “feminine” shapes, colors, forms, and images. In other words, the female aesthetic seems possibly to be no more than a rehabilitated artistic ghetto, furbished with less than satisfactory answers to the hard question of how to define feminist art. Moreover, some see the rise of a trendy “feminine sensibility“ as clearly opportunist. They point, for example, to the odd coincidence that the so-called female aesthetic is strangely reminiscent of the conventions of much currently fashionable art, and they predict further shifts in the aesthetic as art-world fashions change.

The theory of a female sensibility seems to be based on two equally extreme premises, implicit and not explicit. First, it assumes that an individual’s experience is primarily and perhaps completely determined by gender. Women and men are held to inhabit utterly separate worlds, and variations of social or ethnic experience are considered clearly subordinate to gender distinctions. Its second assumption is that whatever exists today must be essentially unchangeable as the battle of the sexes is eternal and historical. It follows, then, that the only way women artists can operate is to accept these terms and develop their own artistic strengths, autonomously and in opposition to men.

Another approach, both balanced and sensible, would argue for a more transcendental view of social experience and of art. Such a point of view corresponds to the opinion within some sectors of the women’s movement that the meaning of one’s personhood and the nature of relationships between the sexes are an evolving phenomena that can be grasped and acted upon. Pat Mainardi has outlined one interpretation of what this might mean for women artists: “The only feminine aesthetic worthy of the name is that women artists must be free to explore the entire range of art possibilities. We who have been labeled, stereotyped, and gerrymandered out of the very definition of art must be free to define art, not to pick up the crumbs from the Man’s table … We must begin to define women’s art as what women (artists) do, not try to slip and squeeze ourselves through the loophole of the male art world.”

30.  Which of the following the best describes the content of the passage?

A)    The Impact of the Women’s Art Movement on Aesthetic Theory.

B)    The Female Aesthetic: Its impact on Artistic Conventions.

C)    An Examination of the Principles and Assumptions of the Theory of a Female Aesthetic.

D)    Feminism, Women’s Liberation, and Aesthetic Theory: Social Change and Women’s Art.

E)    The Uniqueness of Women’s Art in the Male Art World.

31.  The primary purpose of the passage is to

A)    Initiate a debate.

B)    Summarize related points of view.

C)    Define terms and illustrate their applications.

D)    Criticize an approach and suggest an alternative one

E)     Criticize competing theories.

32.  It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most probably agree with which of the following statements about relationships between men and women?

A)  Women can develop their own talents most successfully by working completely independent of men.

B)  Women and men share no common ground of personal experience.

C)  The contemporary relationships between men and women should not affect the work of women artists.

D)  Relationships between men and women are not static and can be influenced by new ideas about women’s identities.

E)  A consequence of the nature of relationships between men and women is that women can develop their art only by seeing men as opponents.

33.  History has not beer kind to Sara Teasdale, but she won a Pulitzer award and saw a book of her verse or the best-seller list, a feat none of the poets of today will likely duplicate.

A)   None of the poets of today will likely duplicate.

B)   No poet today is likely to duplicate.

C)   No poet today will likely duplicate.

D)   Poets of today are not likely to reduplicate

E)    Likely to be unduplicated by poets of today.

34.  According to a government study, the lush swamps and marshes of the Mississippi ,one among the finest wetlands in the world, are vanishing at a rate of 39 square miles a year, as fast as two and a half times the rate that was previously thought.

A)    As fast as two and a half times the rate that was

B)    Two and a half times as fast as it had been

C)    Two and a half times faster than

D)    A rate two and a half times as fast as

E)    Which is a rate two and a half times faster than had been

35.  When scrap steel is recycled, energy is saved in die fining, transportation, and processing of not only but also of coal and limestone.

A)        Processing of not only iron ore but also of coal and limestone.

B)       Processing not only of iron ore but also of coal and limestone.

C)       Processing not only of iron ore but also coal and limestone.

D)       The processing of not only iron ore but of coal and limestone as well.

E)       The processing of not iron ore only but of coal and limestone as well.

Even as the cloth market continues to rule easy, there has been of late,an unexpected firmness in gray cloth prices. Consequently, speculative interest has risen in gray cloth trading.

36.  All the following may possibly explain the upward movement of gray cloth prices with the exception of.

A)  A view to garnering support of the weavers in the forthcoming elections , money is being poured in by the ruling party.

B)  Several export deals have been concluded with Russia, which has set off large orders from the continent as well.

C)  The gray cloth production in the current year is expected to far out-strip the local demand.

D)  Several mills, which have been stricken by cash crush, are believed to be trading in gray cloth.

E)   Production prices of gray cloth have been on the up since last year and increasing mill overheads are likely to keep the trend that way.

A spider spins a web of amazing intricacy using delicate silk with the strength of high tensile nylon. Yet it performs this feat of engineering without ever having a single lesion.

37.  Which of the following can be concluded from the passage?

A)        Spider are nature’s engineers.

B)       Nylon is made from spider silk.

C)       Spiders learn spinning from observation.

D)       A spider’s spinning is controlled by instinct.

E)       Observing spiders inspired the discovery of nylon.

38.  The Mormons interest in genealogy stems from belief as to family relationship being intended to remain eternal.

A)        A belief as to family relationships being intended to remain

B)       Beliefs that family relationships are intended that they be

C)       A belief that family relationships are intended to be

D)       Their believing that family relationships intend to remain

E)       In family relationships intended to be

One of the most unusual ceremonies ever held must surely be the mass wedding that took place in mid-air between Tokyo and Bangkok in 1972. This was a publicity stunt organized by the German airline Lufthansa to launch the first commercial jumbo jet flight of a Euro airline. Inviting Japanese couples to take part in a jumbo wedding, the airline found besieged by eager applicants. 20 couples were selected and on this appointed day they flew across the tarmac of Tokyo airport led by a Shinto priest.

39.  Which of the following can one infer?

A)    The wedding ceremony was a mere publicity stunt and none of the marriages were to be conducted.

B)    Lufthansa was the first airline to fly the jumbo jet from Japan.

C)    The publicity stunt was a success.

D)    The couples truly reached the “height” of wedded bliss.

E)     Japanese youth are very impressionable and malleable.

40.  Corporate finance committees do not plan the detailed activities of the various divisions in a large firm, out by their allocation or investment funds they make strategic judgement as to where the firm should expand.

A)  By their allocation of investment funds they make strategic judgements as to where the firm should expand.

B)  When they allocate investment funds, they make strategic judgments about where firm might be expanding.

C)  They make strategic judgments on where the firm should expand when they allocate investment funds.

D)  By allocating investment funds, they will make strategic judgments about where the firm be expanding.

E)   Allocation of investments funds as to where the firm should  expand as a strategic judgment.


1. The use of like that of’ at the beginning of the sentence is erroneous. Hence, (A) is ruled out Again ‘similar to’ is the wrong usage in this type of sentence structure hence (C) and (D) are ruled out. (E) is a better usage than (B). Hence, (E).

2. Necessary’ is a better choice of word than ‘needed’ — this rules out (A) and (B). ‘Necessary sustain themselves’ is grammatically wrong as ‘themselves’ does not go with ‘an agrarian society’ Therefore, (C) is also ruled out. In option (E), the sentence structure is not correct. Hence, (D)

3. The prediction is based on a negative “matched development”. (D) is however ruled out as men and women are said to become more competitive — this cannot lead to a positive development However, if both are becoming less career minded, then it weakens the negative impact. Hence, C

4. See the last sentence of paragraph one. Also, second paragraph elaborates on this and cites example of other cities following suit. Hence, (B).

5. See second paragraph, “although few cities show this much care for their old residential areas.”, Hence, (A).

6. See second paragraph, where an old factory is said to have been converted into a labyrinth of boutiques. Hence, (D).

7. The low cost housing beyond city limits in the east and the impetus to extend city orders across the desert in the western cities are the reasons. Refer the third paragraph. Hence, (E).

8. The concept of the ‘ideal; has changed with changing socio-economic factors. Hence, (C)

9. The premise in sentence 1 is immediately undercut by the second sentence of the passage. Hence, (D).

10. Since the passage deals with the urban centers, and new trends housing, (E) is the most likely choice. Hence, (E).

11. The sentence does not mean to compare men and women. Hence, options (C), (D) and E are ruled out. Option (B) is ungrammatical Hence, (A).

12. Land shipping it should give you the clue that the option can be either (D) or (E). The supporting clause should maintain the parallel construction. The structure of option (D) is not correct. Hence, (E).

13. ‘for the major’ is the wrong usage in the sentence — therefore (A) and (B) are easily ruled out. (C) can also be cancelled as “the only ball game that …‘. grammatically wrong. Again in (E), ‘by being’ is grammatically incorrect. Only (D) is correct. Hence, (D).

14. The paragraph comments on the failures of the young ‘adults, and the elderly in America despite the ‘success’ of the nation in certain spheres. Hence, (B).

15. If people’s interest in material well being, has increased along with the raise in prize-money, it could explain the greater number of participants in puzzle games. Hence, (D).

16.  ‘To Adam Smith’s belief’ is ungrammatical. ‘the possible option would be either(C) or (E). (C) is a better choice as it simplifies the construction. Hence, (C).

17.  (C), (D) and (E) can be easily ruled out as ‘distinctive’ does not fit here. (B) is the
grammatically correct answer. Hence, (B).

18. The entire passage underlines the importance of observation and theorizing of observable data. Hence, (B).

19. Experimentation in the field of astronomy is indeed difficult, as conditions are difficult to duplicate and control. Hence, (E).

20. See the first sentence of para 3. Hence, (B).

21. The article uses the jargon of science in technical way. Hence, (A).

22. See paragraph 3. Hence, (A).

23. See sentences 3-4 of paragraph 3. Hence, (A).

24. Science deals with objective truths. Hence, (E).

25. (B) might be the reason for all the exodus. It is the only option, which goes against the logic of pollution being the reason for the exodus. Hence, (B).

26. The passage says that “CPAs are not as fancied as their MBA counterparts”.So in the option, we have to look for something that says that CPA’s have a better chance of recruitment over MBA’ s. If (C) is true, then CPAs would be preferred over MBA’s for recruitment after their degree. Hence, (C).

27.  The underlined phrase should have the same structure as that of ‘failing to take … them’. Hence, (E).

28. Always try to look for the error in the sentence before you look at the options. ‘Metabolism reactions’ is wrong usage. Only (B) is grammatically correct keeping the meaning of the sentence intact. Hence, (B).

29.‘Able to be done’ is ungrammatical. Thus, (A) and (C) are ruled out. ‘As the office’ is also incorrect. Option (E) avoids both these errors. Hence, (E).

30. The passage highlights the problems with the concept of female aesthetic. The very first paragraph establishes the theme. The second paragraph then focuses on the loopholes of the concept of female aesthetic. Hence, C

31. Read the first paragraph in conjunction with the first few lines of paragraph 3. Hence, (D).

32. This can be inferred from the second sentence of the last paragraph Hence, (D).

33. Since the sentence is in the present tense, ‘will likely’ is grammatically incorrect. Hence, (A) and (C) are ruled out. In (D) and (E), ‘reduplicate’ and induplicate are wrong usages. Hence, (B) is the correct option.

34. ‘previously thought’ should give you the clue. It suggests a certain vanishing trait. The present rate is compared with the previously-thought rate. Hence, ‘two and a half times faster than’ is grammatically correct. (E) is unnecessarily wordy, though it is grammatically correct. Hence, (C).

35. Not only’ should precede ‘of ..‘ and not follow it. Hence, (B).

36. If there is more cloth than the demand warrants, price would fall, Hence, (C).

37. The passage talks of how spiders spin their webs without having a single lesion. This means that they learn by instinct. (D) therefore the right choice. No evidence of (B) is given in the passage. The strength of spider silk is merely compared to that of nylon. (C) contradicts the passage. The passage describes spinning as a feat of engineering. It does not follow that spiders are nature’s engineers. There is no evidence of (E) in the passage. The answer is (D).

38.  The second part of this sentence should have a clause construction. Hence, (C).

39.  The publicity stunt was the conduction of weddings on flight – not a mere sham. (A) therefore is wrong. We are only given that Lufthansa was the first European airline to fly the jumbo jet commercially. It is possible that some other airline may have been the first to do so. (B) is incorrect. The fact that the airline was inundated with responses indicates that their publicity stunt was a success. They were certainly noticed. (C) therefore can be rightly inferred. In reality, the couples certainly reached a “high”, but we cannot comment whether they did so metaphorically in their marriages or not. (D) is wrong. (E) cannot be inferred. An enthusiastic response to this scheme cannot be the basis for passing such a generic and broad statement. The answer is (C).

40. The sentence is error-free. If we look at other options, then we find that (B) breaks up the simple structure of the original underlined part. (C) uses too many conjunctions (‘where’, ‘when’), thus makes it a convoluted sentence. Same is the case with (D). (E) complicates the sentence structure by using ‘allocations of investments funds as to where’ and ‘are their exercise …‘. Hence, (A)

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